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Ward_s_MGH Agricultural Science_Animals

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4 Agricultural Science (Animal): Test Your Understanding Teacher's Guide + ward ' s science 1. How is the domestication of animals in today's society different than it was in primitive societies? Sample answer: Animals were originally domesticated to meet people's immediate needs, such as food, transportation, and clothing. Today, domesticated animals serve a wide variety of needs, such as con- sumer products other than food and as raw materials for various processing industries. 2. What factors should an animal nutritionist consider when deciding what to feed farm animals? Sample answer: An animal nutritionist should take into consideration the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals present in the type of food the animals are receiving. The nutritionist should also consider how easily those nutrients can be digested by the livestock. 3. Explain selection in terms of livestock breeding. Selection is a breeding process in which animals with desirable characteristics are kept for breeding purposes, while those that don't have desirable characteristics are rejected. 4. What is the reservoir stage in terms of transmission of infectious diseases among livestock? How is this stage helpful to farmers when a livestock population is at risk? The reservoir stage is the stage of infection at which the cause of the disease is localized. A farmer can stop a disease at the reservoir stage by isolating or quarantining the infected animal(s). 5. Critical Thinking: Contrast the selective breeding of draft (work) horses and racehorses. Sample answer: The characteristics of each type of horse differ in their selective breeding. Draft horses are working horses that are selectively bred for characteristics such as strength, height, muscular build, and even temperament. Racehorses are sporting horses, and are thus bred for characteristics such as agility, lean legs, and speed. 4

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