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NEW_39006_Ward's World+MGH Self-driving Car

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2 Key technologies of automated driving In an automated driving system, onboard automatic devices replace human functions in driving. Therefore, according to the functional requirement of human driving and the modules of onboard equipment, the key technologies of automated driv- ing can be divided into four parts as shown in Fig. 1. These are navigation, environment perception, vehicle control, and path planning. Navigation The navigation system uses a number of advanced tech- nologies, including geographic information systems (GIS), the Global Positioning System (GPS), computer technology, and advanced communication technology. The main components of a navigation system are shown in Fig. 2. Self-Driving Car (continued) + ward ' s science Level of automation Description Level 0: No automation The driver completely controls the vehicle at all times. Level 1: Driver assistance Either the lateral (steering) or the longitudinal (speed) control of vehicle motions is automated, while the driver does the rest. Level 2: Partial automation Both lateral and longitudinal motion control are automated simultaneously, such as adaptive cruise control in combination with lane keeping, while the driver supervises continuously and looks out for hazards that the system cannot recognize. Level 3: Conditional automation The driver can cede control of driving in certain conditions. The system senses when conditions require the driver to retake control and alerts the driver to do so. Level 4: High automation The system performs all driving functions within a prescribed set of conditions (location, road class, traffic, weather, and lighting). The driver does not need to control the vehicle while those conditions are satisfied, so the vehicle could therefore operate without any person onboard under those conditions. Level 5: Full automation The system can do the driving under all circumstances in which humans are capable of driving. Human users can still decide whether they prefer to do the driving. Table - SAE classification system for driving automation systems Fig. 2: The main components of the navigation system. The navigation system in Fig. 2 includes two parts: the location system and the digital map database. The first problem for automated driving is that the vehicle must know its location. The technology a vehicle uses to determine its position is called the location system. The location system generates the information for locating the position of the vehicle. Location systems can be classified as relative, absolute, and hybrid.

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