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35567_Ward's World+MGH Environmental Management

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Environmental Management (continued) There is considerable disagreement about the course that the aforementioned intervention should take, which has cre- ated a plurality of approaches to managing the environment. (Note that the word environment usually means the natural surroundings, both living and inanimate, of human lives and activities; it also can mean the artificial landscape of cities, or occasionally even the conceptual field of the noosphere, the realm of communicating human minds.) Environmental managers therefore fall within a broad spectrum that extends from conservationists to technocrats, including those who would limit human interference in nature and those who would increase it in order to guide natural processes along benign paths. Hence, both conservationists and developers are repre- sented. It is hoped that they will come together over the need to make economic development sustainable, without it being undermined by long-term damage to resources and habitats (Fig. 2). Participants Participants in the process of environmental management fall into seven main groups: 1. Governmental organizations at the local, regional, national, and international levels, including world bodies such as the United Nations Environment Programme 2. Research institutions, including universities, academies, and national laboratories 3. Bodies charged with the enforcement of regulations, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 4. Businesses of all sizes and multinational corporations 5. International financial institutions, including the World Bank and International Monetary Fund 6. Environmental nongovernmental organizations, such as the World Wide Fund for Nature (World Wildlife Fund) 7. Representatives of the users of the environment, including tribes, fishermen, and hunters + ward ' s science Fig. 2 Without proper environmental management, economic and industrial development often lead to environmental pollution, especially in urban environments. (Credit: Simon Alvinge/123RF)

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